How to build an OData Service with Olingo V4

Part 3: Write operations

Introduction

This tutorial guides you through the steps required to write an OData Service based on the Olingo OData 4.0 Library for Java (based on current Olingo 4.0.0 release which can be get via the Download-Page).

In the first two tutorials (Read Collection and Read Entity), we’ve learned how to build a simple OData service that supports read operations for collection, single entity and property.

In the present tutorial, will cover the write operations, which means creating an entity, modifying an existing entity and deleting an existing entity.

Note The final source code can be found in the project git repository. A detailed description how to checkout the tutorials can be found here. This tutorial can be found in subdirectory \samples\tutorials\p3_write

Disclaimer Again, in the present tutorial, will focus only on the relevant implementation, in order to keep the code small and simple. The sample code shouldn't be reused for advanced scenarios.

Table of Contents

  1. Prerequisites
  2. Preparation
  3. Implementation of Read Single Entity
    1. Implement the createEntity(...) method
    2. Implement the updateEntity(...) method
    3. Implement the deleteEntity(...) method
  4. Run the implemented service
    1. Example for CREATE
    2. Example for UPDATE (PUT)
    3. Example for UPDATE (PATCH)
    4. Example for DELETE
  5. Summary
  6. Links

1. Prerequisites

Same prerequisites as in Tutorial Part 1: Read Entity Collection and Tutorial Part 2: Read Entity as well as basic knowledge about the concepts presented in both tutorials.


2. Preparation

Follow Tutorial Part 1: Read Entity Collection and Tutorial Part 2: Read Entity or as shortcut import the project attached to Tutorial Part 2 into your Eclipse workspace.

Afterwards do a Deploy and run: it should be working.


3. Implementation

In our sample scenario, we want to create a product, to be added to the list of available products that we maintain in our database-mock. This product that we want to create will have a name and a description that the user of our service will specify in his HTTP request. The Olingo library takes this user request, serializes the request body and invokes the corresponding method of our processor class.

In the previous tutorial 2, we’ve already implemented the EntityProcessor interface and registered our class in the servlet, but we have not written the implementation for the callback methods that are responsible for the write operations. This is what we are going to do in the below sections.

3.1. Implement the createEntity(...) method

Open the class myservice.mynamespace.service.DemoEntityProcessor Go to the method createEntity(...) The method body should be empty, otherwise delete any content.

Now, how to implement the method? Basically, we have to do the same that we did in the readEntity(...) method, but the other way ‘round. In the createEntity(...) method, we have to retrieve the payload from the request and then write it to our mock-database. Furthermore, we have to return the created entity in the response payload.

Again, we can divide our work into 4 steps:

  1. Analyze the URI
  2. Handle data in backend
  3. Serialize
  4. Configure the response

In detail

We have to keep in mind that -for creation - the URL that is executed in our example is the following:

http://localhost:8080/DemoService/DemoService.svc/Products

It is executed as POST request and contains a request body which looks as follows:

{
  "ID":4,
  "Name":"Gamer Mouse",
  "Description":"optical mouse - gamer edition"
}

Steps

  1. In the implementation, we have to first retrieve the EntityCollection and EntityType metadata from the UriInfo object.
  2. The next step is to create the data in our backend. For this purpose, we have to retrieve the data from the HTTP request payload. We get the payload from the ODataRequest instance as InputStream, which can then be deserialized. Our Storage class is responsible for creating the new product in the backend. And for returning the newly created instance. The reason is that our OData service has to return the newly created entity in the response body.
  3. From now on the procedure is the same like in the readEntity(...) method
  4. The only difference is the status code, that has to be set to 201 - created in case of success

Please find below the sample code for the createEntity() method

public void createEntity(ODataRequest request, ODataResponse response, UriInfo uriInfo,
     ContentType requestFormat, ContentType responseFormat)
    throws ODataApplicationException, DeserializerException, SerializerException {

  // 1. Retrieve the entity type from the URI
  EdmEntitySet edmEntitySet = Util.getEdmEntitySet(uriInfo);
  EdmEntityType edmEntityType = edmEntitySet.getEntityType();

  // 2. create the data in backend
  // 2.1. retrieve the payload from the POST request for the entity to create and deserialize it
  InputStream requestInputStream = request.getBody();
  ODataDeserializer deserializer = this.odata.createDeserializer(requestFormat);
  DeserializerResult result = deserializer.entity(requestInputStream, edmEntityType);
  Entity requestEntity = result.getEntity();
  // 2.2 do the creation in backend, which returns the newly created entity
  Entity createdEntity = storage.createEntityData(edmEntitySet, requestEntity);

  // 3. serialize the response (we have to return the created entity)
  ContextURL contextUrl = ContextURL.with().entitySet(edmEntitySet).build();
    // expand and select currently not supported
  EntitySerializerOptions options = EntitySerializerOptions.with().contextURL(contextUrl).build();

  ODataSerializer serializer = this.odata.createSerializer(responseFormat);
  SerializerResult serializedResponse = serializer.entity(serviceMetadata, edmEntityType, createdEntity, options);

  //4. configure the response object
  response.setContent(serializedResponse.getContent());
  response.setStatusCode(HttpStatusCode.CREATED.getStatusCode());
  response.setHeader(HttpHeader.CONTENT_TYPE, responseFormat.toContentTypeString());
}

3.2. Implement the updateEntity(...) method

Example URL

http://localhost:8080/DemoService/DemoService.svc/Products(3)

Example request body:

{
  "ID":3,
  "Name":"Ergo Screen updated Name",
  "Description":"updated description"
}

The updateEntity(...) method is similar. Again, we have to retrieve the payload from the HTTP request and use it for modifying the data in backend. The difference is that case of update operation, the OData service is not expected to return any response payload. So we can skip the serialize-step and simply set the HTTP status code to 204 – no content

public void updateEntity(ODataRequest request, ODataResponse response, UriInfo uriInfo,
ContentType requestFormat, ContentType responseFormat)
    throws ODataApplicationException, DeserializerException, SerializerException {

  // 1. Retrieve the entity set which belongs to the requested entity
  List<UriResource> resourcePaths = uriInfo.getUriResourceParts();
  // Note: only in our example we can assume that the first segment is the EntitySet
  UriResourceEntitySet uriResourceEntitySet = (UriResourceEntitySet) resourcePaths.get(0);
  EdmEntitySet edmEntitySet = uriResourceEntitySet.getEntitySet();
  EdmEntityType edmEntityType = edmEntitySet.getEntityType();

  // 2. update the data in backend
  // 2.1. retrieve the payload from the PUT request for the entity to be updated
  InputStream requestInputStream = request.getBody();
  ODataDeserializer deserializer = this.odata.createDeserializer(requestFormat);
  DeserializerResult result = deserializer.entity(requestInputStream, edmEntityType);
  Entity requestEntity = result.getEntity();
  // 2.2 do the modification in backend
  List<UriParameter> keyPredicates = uriResourceEntitySet.getKeyPredicates();
  // Note that this updateEntity()-method is invoked for both PUT or PATCH operations
  HttpMethod httpMethod = request.getMethod();
  storage.updateEntityData(edmEntitySet, keyPredicates, requestEntity, httpMethod);

  //3. configure the response object
  response.setStatusCode(HttpStatusCode.NO_CONTENT.getStatusCode());
}

In case of update, we have to consider the following: The update of an entity can be realized in 2 ways: either a PATCH or a PUT request. (See the online specification in section 11.4.3 Update an Entity for more details. For both HTTP methods, our updateEntity(...) will be invoked. But we have to treat the data-modification differently. Therefore, we have to first retrieve the used HTTP method and in the backend-logic, we have to distinguish between PATCH and PUT. The difference becomes relevant only in case if the user doesn’t send all the properties in the request body.

Example: if we modify the above example request body to look as follows:

{
  "Description":"updated description"
}

Note that in this case, only one of three properties is sent in the request body.

So let’s have a look at our sample implementation in the Storage class (see below for full sample code and also see the attached zip file containing the whole sample project)

private void updateProduct(EdmEntityType edmEntityType, List<UriParameter> keyParams, Entity entity, HttpMethod httpMethod)
                            throws ODataApplicationException{

  Entity productEntity = getProduct(edmEntityType, keyParams);
  if(productEntity == null){
    throw new ODataApplicationException("Entity not found",
                        HttpStatusCode.NOT_FOUND.getStatusCode(), Locale.ENGLISH);
  }

  // loop over all properties and replace the values with the values of the given payload
  // Note: ignoring ComplexType, as we don't have it in our odata model
  List<Property> existingProperties = productEntity.getProperties();
  for(Property existingProp : existingProperties){
    String propName = existingProp.getName();

    // ignore the key properties, they aren't updateable
    if(isKey(edmEntityType, propName)){
      continue;
    }

    Property updateProperty = entity.getProperty(propName);
    // the request payload might not consider ALL properties, so it can be null
    if(updateProperty == null){
      // if a property has NOT been added to the request payload
      // depending on the HttpMethod, our behavior is different
      if(httpMethod.equals(HttpMethod.PATCH)){
        // in case of PATCH, the existing property is not touched
        continue; // do nothing
      }else if(httpMethod.equals(HttpMethod.PUT)){
        // in case of PUT, the existing property is set to null
        existingProp.setValue(existingProp.getValueType(), null);
        continue;
      }
    }

    // change the value of the properties
    existingProp.setValue(existingProp.getValueType(), updateProperty.getValue());
  }
}

3.3. Implement the deleteEntity(...) method

In case of DELETE operation, the URL is the same like for the GET operation, but the request body is empty.

Example URL:

http://localhost:8080/DemoService/DemoService.svc/Products(3)

The implementation is rather simple:

4. Run the service

After building and deploying the project, we can invoke our OData service.

In order to test the write operations of our OData service, we need a tool that is able to execute the following required HTTP requests:

This is usually done with any REST client tool that can be installed into the browser of your choice.

Some REST clients which are available as browser extension for:

The following sections provide examples for executing the requests:

4.1. Example for CREATE:

4.2. Example for UPDATE (PUT):

4.3. Example for UPDATE (PATCH):

4.4. Example for DELETE:


5. Summary

In this tutorial we have learned how to implement the creation, update and deletion of an entity. It has been based on a simple OData model, focusing on simple sample code and sample data.

In the next tutorial (Part 4: Navigation) we will learn how to implement navigation, i.e. the linking of resources.


6. Links

Tutorials

Code and Repository

Further reading

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